Robert Plutchik agreed with Ekman's biologically driven perspective but developed the " wheel of emotions ", suggesting eight primary emotions grouped on a positive or negative basis: joy versus sadness; anger versus fear; trust versus disgust; and surprise versus anticipation. The complex emotions could arise from cultural conditioning or association combined with the basic emotions. Alternatively, similar to the way primary colors combine, primary emotions could blend to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience. For example, interpersonal anger and disgust could blend to form contempt.
Relationships exist between basic emotions, resulting in positive or negative influences. Psychologists have used methods such as factor analysis to attempt to map emotion-related responses onto a more limited number of dimensions. Such methods attempt to boil emotions down to underlying dimensions that capture the similarities and differences between experiences. These two dimensions can be depicted on a 2D coordinate map. In stoic theories it was seen as a hindrance to reason and therefore a hindrance to virtue. Aristotle believed that emotions were an essential component of virtue.
During the Middle Ages , the Aristotelian view was adopted and further developed by scholasticism and Thomas Aquinas  in particular. In Chinese antiquity, excessive emotion was believed to cause damage to qi , which in turn, damages the vital organs. In the early 11th century, Avicenna theorized about the influence of emotions on health and behaviors, suggesting the need to manage emotions. In the 19th century emotions were considered adaptive and were studied more frequently from an empiricist psychiatric perspective.
Perspectives on emotions from evolutionary theory were initiated during the mid-late 19th century with Charles Darwin 's book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Darwin also detailed homologous expressions of emotions that occur in animals. This led the way for animal research on emotions and the eventual determination of the neural underpinnings of emotion. More contemporary views along the evolutionary psychology spectrum posit that both basic emotions and social emotions evolved to motivate social behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment.
MacLean claims that emotion competes with even more instinctive responses, on one hand, and the more abstract reasoning, on the other hand. The increased potential in neuroimaging has also allowed investigation into evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain. Important neurological advances were derived from these perspectives in the s by Joseph E. Research on social emotion also focuses on the physical displays of emotion including body language of animals and humans see affect display. For example, spite seems to work against the individual but it can establish an individual's reputation as someone to be feared.
Somatic theories of emotion claim that bodily responses, rather than cognitive interpretations, are essential to emotions. The first modern version of such theories came from William James in the s. LeDoux  and Robert Zajonc  who are able to appeal to neurological evidence.
In his article  William James argued that feelings and emotions were secondary to physiological phenomena.
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In his theory, James proposed that the perception of what he called an "exciting fact" directly led to a physiological response, known as "emotion. The Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time, and therefore this theory became known as the James—Lange theory.
As James wrote, "the perception of bodily changes, as they occur, is the emotion. An example of this theory in action would be as follows: An emotion-evoking stimulus snake triggers a pattern of physiological response increased heart rate, faster breathing, etc. This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state induces a desired emotional state. Although mostly abandoned in its original form, Tim Dalgleish argues that most contemporary neuroscientists have embraced the components of the James-Lange theory of emotions.
The James—Lange theory has remained influential. Its main contribution is the emphasis it places on the embodiment of emotions, especially the argument that changes in the bodily concomitants of emotions can alter their experienced intensity. Most contemporary neuroscientists would endorse a modified James—Lange view in which bodily feedback modulates the experience of emotion.
Walter Bradford Cannon agreed that physiological responses played a crucial role in emotions, but did not believe that physiological responses alone could explain subjective emotional experiences. He argued that physiological responses were too slow and often imperceptible and this could not account for the relatively rapid and intense subjective awareness of emotion.
Phillip Bard contributed to the theory with his work on animals. Bard found that sensory, motor, and physiological information all had to pass through the diencephalon particularly the thalamus , before being subjected to any further processing. Therefore, Cannon also argued that it was not anatomically possible for sensory events to trigger a physiological response prior to triggering conscious awareness and emotional stimuli had to trigger both physiological and experiential aspects of emotion simultaneously.
Schachter did agree that physiological reactions played a big role in emotions. He suggested that physiological reactions contributed to emotional experience by facilitating a focused cognitive appraisal of a given physiologically arousing event and that this appraisal was what defined the subjective emotional experience. Emotions were thus a result of two-stage process: general physiological arousal, and experience of emotion. For example, the physiological arousal, heart pounding, in a response to an evoking stimulus, the sight of a bear in the kitchen. The brain then quickly scans the area, to explain the pounding, and notices the bear.
Consequently, the brain interprets the pounding heart as being the result of fearing the bear. Subjects were observed to express either anger or amusement depending on whether another person in the situation a confederate displayed that emotion. Hence, the combination of the appraisal of the situation cognitive and the participants' reception of adrenaline or a placebo together determined the response. This experiment has been criticized in Jesse Prinz's Gut Reactions. With the two-factor theory now incorporating cognition, several theories began to argue that cognitive activity in the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughts were entirely necessary for an emotion to occur.
One of the main proponents of this view was Richard Lazarus who argued that emotions must have some cognitive intentionality. The cognitive activity involved in the interpretation of an emotional context may be conscious or unconscious and may or may not take the form of conceptual processing. Lazarus' theory is very influential; emotion is a disturbance that occurs in the following order:.
Lazarus stressed that the quality and intensity of emotions are controlled through cognitive processes. These processes underline coping strategies that form the emotional reaction by altering the relationship between the person and the environment. George Mandler provided an extensive theoretical and empirical discussion of emotion as influenced by cognition, consciousness, and the autonomic nervous system in two books Mind and Emotion , ,  and Mind and Body: Psychology of Emotion and Stress , .
There are some theories on emotions arguing that cognitive activity in the form of judgments, evaluations, or thoughts are necessary in order for an emotion to occur. A prominent philosophical exponent is Robert C. Solomon claims that emotions are judgments.
The theory proposed by Nico Frijda where appraisal leads to action tendencies is another example. It has also been suggested that emotions affect heuristics, feelings and gut-feeling reactions are often used as shortcuts to process information and influence behavior. Theories dealing with perception either use one or multiples perceptions in order to find an emotion. This theory is neo-Jamesian in arguing that bodily responses are central to emotions, yet it emphasizes the meaningfulness of emotions or the idea that emotions are about something, as is recognized by cognitive theories.
The novel claim of this theory is that conceptually-based cognition is unnecessary for such meaning. Rather the bodily changes themselves perceive the meaningful content of the emotion because of being causally triggered by certain situations.
In this respect, emotions are held to be analogous to faculties such as vision or touch, which provide information about the relation between the subject and the world in various ways. A sophisticated defense of this view is found in philosopher Jesse Prinz's book Gut Reactions ,  and psychologist James Laird's book Feelings. Affective events theory is a communication-based theory developed by Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano ,  that looks at the causes, structures, and consequences of emotional experience especially in work contexts.
This theory suggests that emotions are influenced and caused by events which in turn influence attitudes and behaviors. Weiss and Daniel J. A situated perspective on emotion, developed by Paul E.
Griffiths and Andrea Scarantino, emphasizes the importance of external factors in the development and communication of emotion, drawing upon the situationism approach in psychology. In contrast, a situationist perspective on emotion views emotion as the product of an organism investigating its environment, and observing the responses of other organisms. Emotion stimulates the evolution of social relationships, acting as a signal to mediate the behavior of other organisms.
In some contexts, the expression of emotion both voluntary and involuntary could be seen as strategic moves in the transactions between different organisms. The situated perspective on emotion states that conceptual thought is not an inherent part of emotion, since emotion is an action-oriented form of skillful engagement with the world.
Griffiths and Scarantino suggested that this perspective on emotion could be helpful in understanding phobias, as well as the emotions of infants and animals. Emotions can motivate social interactions and relationships and therefore are directly related with basic physiology , particularly with the stress systems. This is important because emotions are related to the anti-stress complex, with an oxytocin-attachment system, which plays a major role in bonding.
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Emotional phenotype temperaments affect social connectedness and fitness in complex social systems. Information that is encoded in the DNA sequences provides the blueprint for assembling proteins that make up our cells. Zygotes require genetic information from their parental germ cells, and at every speciation event, heritable traits that have enabled its ancestor to survive and reproduce successfully are passed down along with new traits that could be potentially beneficial to the offspring.